Britain’s Black Debt: Reparations for Caribbean Slavery and Native Genocide


from its effects, the government’s response (whether the left or right is in power) remains fundamentally economic. The problems of the Mapuche are viewed narrowly as a result of poverty, not as a lack of rights to land, representation, self-governance, and formal recognition. Multiculturalism is top-down and inºexible. Since the state views the Mapuche primarily in economic terms, it quickly labels them as terrorists whenever they assume an activist role. “Bad Indians” are not “authentic”; “good Indians” work with the state by participating in, among other things, ethnotourism. Richards’ study reveals how racism reinforces the economic model. Although the literature about Chilean democratization often centers on poverty, rarely does it focus speciªcally on race. The state’s use of anti-terrorist legislation to justify detentions of Mapuche—while targeting no one else— underlines that reality.

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